Vineyard-style training methods are also very effective for training grapevines against a wall or facade. This technique lends itself particularly well to small trellises, but works great for longer ribbons of greenery at any height. By planting several vines, a designated greening area can be covered very quickly. The simplicity and efficiency of this training technique makes it preferable to the horizontal cordon.
Horizontal espalier 'ribbons' (long, narrow bands of espaliers) require an espalier height of 0.7 - 1.2 metres; that is, the distance between the lowest and highest wire should be at least 70 cm. For aesthetic reasons, we recommend keeping a minimal distance of 25 - 40 cm from house corners, windows, doors, and other wall openings (refer to our Planning Tips). A vine with bilateral (double) canes requires a width of about 1.5 m, and a single cane a width of about 0.8 m. For a cane bent and tied into a bow ("circular cane," see below), the espalier width can be as narrow as 50 cm.
Small or narrow, ribbon-like trellises are best; for suitable wire rope systems, refer to grapevines.
As described for vineyard training: for the usual bilateral arched canes, 3 espalier wires are sufficient. For high espaliers, the vertical main trunk is trained correspondingly high; if growth is rather weak, this training period is extended for another year. For very small or narrow spaces, only one lateral arch is formed and is tied as a circular cane (see sketch below, right).