From 1850 it went downhill in Europe as far as grape growing was concerned, and retreated to a few climatically favored areas. Phylloxera and new fungal diseases were at fault which spread across trellises. Thus, grape vine was ousted in favor of building green ups of leaf and ornamental plants. Next, the trend from England was land houses and villas now with lush plantings of pure decorative trellises - roses and clematis were, and still are indispensable! The arbors of the growing number of small gardens were built and planted. In industrial architecture as well as in apartment buildings of the "founding period" in 1871, however, building greening played hardly any role, parallel, the garden city movement was established in 1900. These will be described separately.
Building Green up as decoration was created in the second half of the 19th century, to honour the emperor or King when visiting a town or village. This was based on the old tradition, to throw nothing away, and instead to use everything at hand, including the blend of Evergreen plants (Ivy, Holly, Boxwood). The shoots were braided to garlands and attached to the facades because the leathery, waxy leaves lasted a long time. However, after so many new climbing plants were becoming available, it was tried in many places to replace these green garlands by a durable green up with growing wires/ropes for climbers. From time to time espaliers only for decoration were placed.
The new climbing plants which broadened the design pallet were now coming back from Asia, often via England: Akebia (1845), Bittersweet (1860), Boston Ivy (1862), furthermore Kiwi (1874) and Silver lace vine (1899). In 1858 came the still famous "Clematis Jackmannii" from the English cultivation culture. Hundreds of Roses and Clematis breeds resulting from England and France, and almost every one of the climbing plants we use today were virtually established around 1900.