Late pruning towards the end of winter - as recommended for frosty regions - usually leads to "bleeding" of the cut surfaces, or "wounds." This is not a negative process for the vine, but one must prevent the sap from flowing down along the stem framework onto buds below and "drowning" them, as this will stop them from opening in spring.
Starting around February as soil temperatures warm, sap flow is initiated once again... the vine draws water with enormous force from as far as 30m below. This water presses against the freshly cut surfaces which haven't callused yet, and drips off (oozes) from there. This sap "bleeding" may last up to 2 weeks, and occasionally develops into small rivulets along the stem. Whether the draconian expression "bleeding" is appropriate is questionable, but it is assumed that low concentrations of minerals and sugars - the vine's frost protection - are also flushed out with the water, which in case of further severe frosts, can significantly damage the vine.
It is essential to prevent the sap from flowing down along the canes and "drowning" vital buds. Through skillful cutting techniques, i.e., cutting the wood at a slight angle, one can achieve a definite spillover spot, from where the water will run off exactly between the buds below. Alternatively, long canes can be slightly bent downwards or a small thread tied behind the cut surface to facilitate draining.