Sunny Position, however, hot (south-facing) walls are not tolerated by species susceptible to mildew (blight). If necessary can be grown in semi-shade and in areas without direct sun, but which receive full daylight (such as an enclosed courtyard). Deep, sandy-clayey soil, not too moist but not too dry, some humus but not too much! Fertilise with potash until early summer, also with wood ash. Distance from plant to plant: 1.5 - 4 m.
Scrambler with thorns. Some species have the tendency to become bare in the lower parts. For small trellises, the (more robust) shrub- and carpet roses can be used. Foliage lasts from May to October, with many species until March.
Flower and Fruit
Flowers often in clusters at the end of the yearly new growth in white, pink or red depending on species, also yellow and apricot. Depending on species, will flower once, several times or (almost) continuously throughout the season. Often produces green or red rosehips.
Training as per graphic illustration below right, but varies for the different growth rates and structures of the plants. For small trellises, yearly prune in winter almost to the ground. For larger espaliers it is important to train the plant to a well-formed branch structure. When cutting back entire stems, a short stump is always left. Dead-heading (cutting off the spent flowers) encourages new flowers and extends the blossoming period.
Rods, meshes, nets etc. For suitable growth support systems see below. Medium for large areas and susceptible species rather Heavy Systems. Important for wall espaliers: the sturdy main stems (ie the actual frame of the plant) are tied to the outside of the trellis. Yearly shoots which will bear the flowers and are later cut off, can go to the back of the trellis. Medium or Heavy Duty Growth Support Systems or better massive systems for high greening areas and sensitive varieties because of the higher distance from wall. for smaller areas, even Easy construction style may work.