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Renaissance & Baroque (ca. 1500-1770)

With the beginning of the "modern era," circa 1500, Garden "art" bloomed and green facades escaped their usefulness except for on the private monastery walls. In the new, serious landscaped gardens of the nobility, cantilevered arbors, pergolas and green walls were being planted.  In the kitchen gardens, trellis fruit played a major role. It was first cultivated on wooden trellises, then later emerged on particularly artful and elaborate"trellises".

Vines and roses on metal cables, castle Salem / Bade-Wurttemberg

Spread of Wall Greening

After the step from the private monastery gardens to the aristocratic gardens, wall greening  spread even further. Estates and large farms were greening and also even simple day laborers cottages. Thus, in many regions of Germany each homestead had its trellises, most planted with vines. Soon, new climbing plants had been introduced and cultivated, Virginia Creeper (1629) and Thicket Creeper , the Trumpet vines (1640) and Wild grapevines (1656). In England, already in c. 1650, Clematis species played a role.

Wood Trellis

Building greening took place during this time primarily with wooden trellises. Depending on the region, various designs were used but the lath trellis of classic design dominated. Modelled on a garden fence: horizontal bars with vertical slats, especially in the Baroque era, the trellis construction was elaborately flowered, the so-called "Treillagen".

Cords and Talut Walls

Long before the now customary building greening systems, wire was used in the Baroque era to hoist espalier fruit up. It was more durable than textile cords. Thus, the term "string tree" for wall fruit originated. The copper wire was then made in the water-powered wire forges. The fruit grew sometimes in specially glassed Talut walls, as in Potsdam Sancoussi 1745. Built in 1747 under Frederick the Great.

Meinholdsches tower house, Radebeul / Saxony
Tower house with Vines


You can find more examples of greened buildings dating from about 1500 - 1600 A.D., please click on the photos

3 vines 'Regent' House of the mill Zettenbach / Unstrut, Saxony-Anhalt
Detail of mill Zettenbach. see photo on the left
Rose trellis at the old 'witch' House of approx. 1600 Bautzen, Saxony
Ivy, old Castle, about 1600, Stuttgart / Baden-Württemberg
Clematis, residential building of approximately 1600, Laucha / Saxony - Anhalt
Vines, old forge Church str. / Leopold-Bing-str., demolition about 2005, Bad Sulza, Thuringia
Wild growing tendril vines in the autumn on the Renaissance Schloss Nossen / Saxony
City Hall / Castle in Riesa, Saxony, Germany, greened over 100 years ago with Wisteria.
Old Espalier Pear, East area of Dornburger Castle / Thuringia
Burg Giebichenstein, Unterburg, old trellises with wild vines, Halle an der Saale / Saxony-Anhalt
Gatehouse with horizontally guided Wisteria at historic zoological garden, Colditz / Saxony
Espalier Peach on a Renaissance-Portal, Old Boys School from 1564, Colditz / Saxony
Climbing roses flanking a portal, market place Colditz / Saxony
Grape vine on wire rope, registry office Grimma / Saxony


Examples here: greened houses from the Baroque period around 1600-1770 A.D., please click on the photos! 

Grape vines in a baroque house v. 1754 (Musäus House in Weimar, Thuringia
Grape wine, baroque village church of Schönburg / Saxony-Anhalt
Pears, trellis garden hist. Model v. 1739, Castle Gnandstein / Saxony
Wisteria on ropes, Town Hall of Lichtenfels, Bavaria
Dutchman's pipe on ropes, Town Hall of Lichtenfels, Bavaria
Leaf Akebia on steel cables, Town Hall of Lichtenfels, Bavaria
Trellis vines, Meinholdsches Tower, Radebeul, Sachsen
Vine trellis planted by Goethe, House on the Frauenplan, Weimar / Thuringia
Wisteria, water palace Pillnitz Castle ('China-style'), Dresden / Saxony
Lower wall, historical trellis wall with vine, Dornburger Castle / Thuringia
Upper historic trellis wall with wine, Dornburger Castle / Thuringia
Upper historic trellis wall with wine, Dornburger Castle / Thuringia
Old half-timbered house in the vineyard slope, Dresden / Saxony
Wine trellises, Baroque St. urban church, Meißen / Saxony
Old House with Espalier Pears, Kohren-Salis / Saxony
Wild grapes on trellis work, Schloss Tiefurt, Weimar / Thuringia
Vine at the Keith House or Lord Marshal House in Potsdam / Brandenburg
Goethe's garden house in estate Frauenplan, wild vines, historic greening of wood trellises, Weimar / Thürigen
Old espalier fruit trees, Cavaliers house Gut Hasselburg / Schleswig-Holstein
Apple trellises on historical models, National Stud, Moritzburg / Sachsen
Frankish Foundation, old wisteria at the well house (House 28), circa 1999 before restoration, Halle an der Salle / Saxony-Anhalt
Frankish Foundation, old Wisteria at the well house (House 28), rebuild in 2014 after refurbishment (see photo above), Halle an der Salle / Saxony-Anhalt
Baroque building with later-planted grapevines, Hälterstr. 2 in Merseburg / Saxony-Anhalt
Historical, terraces-like Talutmauern for trellis fruit with open glass in the castle park Sanssouci / Potsdam / Brandenburg
View behind the glass-enclosed Talut wall to the figs on rank wires, Schlosspark Sanssouci, Potsdam / Brandenburg
Baroque vicarage, wine trellises after historical model, Seifertshain near Leipzig / Saxony
Baroque garden pavilion from 1740  with rose espalier, castle complex Döben near  Grimma / Saxony
Climbing roses on a Baroque building from 1752. Today it is a wine store "Rosenschlößchen", Halberstadt / Saxony-Anhalt