3-bar espaliers in the classical shape consist of three crossbars and vertical laths protruding on top and at the bottom. They are suited for larger espaliers, for example, if a medium-size gable needs to be covered. In the case of hardwood laths, or larch, 3-bar espaliers are a MUST, because these types of wood (especially undried) tend to warp. Therefore, a 3-point fastening is recommended. These espaliers can be planned singly, in groups, or as espalier bands as well. For futher details, such as cross sections, spacing between laths, fastenings, and so on, please click on the respective sites.
It is also reasonable for the planning of 3-bar espaliers to include spacing on all sides, building the espalier a little smaller, to some extent, and “indentured”, because this looks more delicate and the respective plant usually spreads beyond the edging of the espalier. Occasionally it is useful to set the middle bar a little higher due to the harmonious division in the purpose of the “golden cut”. The quantity of wall fastenings depends on the espalier’s width, please pay attention to the maximum spacings recommended for the individual anchors. The anchors are not set all the way outwards, but circa 20-40 cm indentured. At least two vertical espalier laths are attached to them.
Several espaliers often are arranged between windows, doors, etc.., if their size does not allow a continuous espalier band. Sometimes, even creative aspects may determine the mounting of several, single espaliers instead of one large espalier band. Oftentimes, the lines of the window row are “taken up“ from the crossbars or the borders of the laths, with a continuous growth resulting.
Often times, windows on outhouses serving for ventilation reasons only, used to be covered by laths in order to obtain more espalier width and produce a higher harvest, respectively. The recess or the “avoidance” of a window opening often appears more integrated; it is more costly though, and requires deviations in the arrangement of the bars. It is easier to arrange two espaliers on both sides of the window as described above.